"Good design allows its own denial."

Eternally Yours: Time in Design - 2004


"Aimer la perfection parce qu'elle est le seuil,
Mais la nier sitôt connue, l'oublier morte,
L'imperfection est la cime."

Yves Bonnefoy - 1958



An open-ended-design is seen as a project able to change, according to the changing context.


Open-ended-design, can also be defined as suboptimal, error-friendly, incomplete, unfinished, Wabi Sabi, contextual, context-dependent and is characterised by its inner flexibility due to the voluntary incomplete definition of its features, also defined as its Imperfection.


While this concept is grounded in software development (i.e. Wikipedia programming system is explicitly inspired by the Wabi Sabi approach), it is still harder to transfer it into hardware and low-tech solutions. In these solutions, the sub-optimality of the design itself might serve as trigger and facilitator for re-appropriation cycles. I use the term “voluntary” in this definition, which might be substituted also by conscious or intentional, to highlight how this research focuses on intentionally made open-ended design solutions.


At the same time, I acknowledge as every object is, once put in the real world (from its own production to the end of life, and second lives) open-ended per definition, but very often this happens in a non-intentional way, at least from the designer perspective.